2.0 Introduction

This chapter is about reviewing the article from another source to identified the causes and way to prevent the plagiarism.

2.1 The causes of plagiarism

Plagiarism is the famous word to describe something that disapproving. Refer to the oxford’s dictionary 7th edition; word of plagiarism can be described as an act of plagiarizing something or something that has been plagiarized. Actually, plagiarism is a borrowing someone else’s original ideas. In other word, plagiarism is synonym with ‘copy’ and ‘paste’ something.Plagiarism could be caused by laziness, “Crytomnesia”, ethical lapses and time management.

2.1.1 Laziness

The first cause of student do plagiarism is laziness. Student that has these criteria also do the plagiarism to finish their work without thinking of future affect they will get. Beasley (2004) says “If laziness is a motivating factor, the current climate of easy access to information that can be stolen provides ample temptation. A Research Process Automation/RDE tool, by saving the student time, may mitigate the natural inclination of some individuals to avoid work”. When student have laziness they will do plagiarism to done their assignment. From Hart and Friesner (2004) article, 50 percent of doing plagiarism because of laziness and bad time management.

2.1.2 Cryptomnesia

Second causes of student involve in plagiarism was “Crytomnesia”. Cryptomnesia means phenomenal of forgotten of knowledge. This cryptomnesia will happen when student lack or fail to care about the information they want to use but it can be solve if student know how to keep rightness source to get the information. Beasley (2004) agrees it can reduce the possibility to get cryptomnesia. Commit the plagiarism among student can give the effected for the student result. In the future the habit of plagiarism will come at work environment also. According to Park (2003) “Plagiarism by students is a moral maze, because it raises important ethical and moral questions about good/bad or right/wrong behavior and about acceptable unacceptable practices”. University should take seriously responsibility to teach student about value, moral and personal ethic to prevent student from practiced the plagiarism. Without compromise with student about the plagiarism, objective of learning can be archived successful. Most of the problem is when student do plagiarism among them self and it difficult to define the original person idea. However, some student does the plagiarism on purpose. ‘Hidden memory’ also call cryptomnesia was described by physiologists as the causes of plagiarism. Student believe they produce the original idea but actually they copy from other person without know it.

2.1.3 Ethical lapses

A third cause of plagiarism is ethical lapses. According to Beasley (2004), Ethical lapses mean student lack in confidence to do the work by self and not have a self attitude to produce a work by self. These types of student do plagiarism to finish their assignment. According to Park (2003) “Plagiarism by students is a moral maze, because it raises important ethical and moral questions about good/bad or right/wrong behavior and about acceptable unacceptable practices”.

2.1.4 Time management

The fourth causes of plagiarism student does is time management. Those who don’t have a good time management have problem to done the assignment. According to Park (2003), “There are many calls on student’s time, including peer pressure for an active social life, commitment to college sports and performance activities, family responsibilities and pressure to complete multiple work assignments in short amounts of time. Little wonder that Silverman (2002) concludes that ‘students’ overtaxed lives leave them so vulnerable to the temptations of cheating”. Otherwise, Hart and Friesner (2004) say, “Less effective time management, particularly by first year students”.

2.2 Way to prevent

The ways to prevent plagiarism are teach about plagiarism, show example of plagiarism, assign due date and academic staff role.

2.2.1 Teach about plagiarism

Refer to the Sharkey and Culp (2005) about their research state that promoting information literacy includes teaching students about plagiarism. Promoting information literacy also includes teaching students about plagiarism. Librarians also are main role to fighting or disagree about plagiarism. However, collaborate with faculty also way in plagiarism prevention. Librarian can make connection with faculty and demonstrate knowledge and expertise. Sharkey and Culp (2005) state that teach and show examples to make it clear, describe its consequences, promote its prevention and discuss it. From that, we can conclude that to prevent plagiarism, we must define what plagiarism to students is. Make some example that showing the plagiarism and based on that example, students will understand and clear about plagiarism. Also, describe and discuss about it sequences from the example. So, they already know what is good or not about plagiarism and promote its preventions. Show to them how to avoid the plagiarism and discuss together to change the ideas and knowledge.

2.2.2 Show example

Suarez and Martin (2001) describe that before prevent plagiarism, teachers should know how to detect the plagiarism. For example, notice mixed paragraph styles and various skill levels of writing. This way is the sign that copy and paste method of plagiarism was used. Also, notice vocabulary of usages. If there have a high usage word in ordinary usage word, there are the sign of plagiarism among student. Another, refer to the original assignment and see if the paper is about the assigned topic and if it contain the information that was required. If the assignment is out of the topic, it was a plagiarism. For example, teach about what is plagiarism, causes and effect from the plagiarism. Student should know clearly about plagiarism, if they know about causes of plagiarism, they will not make plagiarize. Addition, strategies for detection is important to prevent plagiarism. We must know the strategies that use by students and we can make some reference to get the way to prevent the plagiarism. The strategies that can be used such as know where the sources of paper are.

2.2.3 Assign due date

Suarez and Martin (2001) state that assign due dates for the students to turn in the selected topic or assignment. Do not allow students to skip portions of their assignment. For example, if the students did not finish or submit their assignment on-time, their assignment would not be accepted.

2.2.4 Academic staff role

Walker (1998) discussed how to overcome the plagiarism among students and procedures that can be used by academic staff to classify instances of plagiarism. The plagiarism must be avoided to happen. There are several ways that we can use as guidelines to prevent it. For example, student awareness campaign of plagiarism. Students in universities more matured to think about the positive or negative behavior. So, by this campaign, we can use some strategies to make sure that they can make self reflection by explain what’s wrong about plagiarism. So, they will be aware of their own reflection or action and know the bad response if their do the plagiarism. In strategies awareness, discuss about the benefits of citing sources. With a lot of sources, we can have many ideas to complete the work and same time we can get information that related in our life that more information we get, cleverer we are. Otherwise, this campaign awareness is good for lecturer or academic staff and not only for students.

2.3 Conclusion

As a conclusion, students often to think the probability of plagiarism being detected are small. The thinking like this must be avoided by follow the ways of plagiarism prevention above. The successful of work is from the honest work without any cheating. We also often heard about if you do not want people to cheat, you are going to have to equip them with the skills that will allow them to succeed without cheating. So, plagiarism must not be present to make our life success.